Similar developments took place in the…. Immigrants from other Scandinavian and northern European countries account for most of the increases, but immigrants from southern Europe and the Middle East are the most noticed in public debate. However, more than 50 percent of households have only one adult single, divorced with children, or widowed.
It also symbolizes his duty as a provider. Even large cities such as Odense, shown here, retain traditional architecture and streetscapes. Social Problems and Control. After six months of unemployment, an individual meets with an officer from the local unemployment office to formulate a specific strategy for getting a new job. The ever-increasing assimilation of European ways by the people on the Gold Coast had already made possible there the introduction of such organs of government as a legislative council and a supreme court , but for many years Asante and the Northern Territories remained the sole responsibility of the governor, whose officials were from the s onward encouraged to work with and through the authorities of the indigenous states.
Increasing demands for skills in reading, writing, mathematics, computers, and stress management are among the factors that have caused this development. Unemployment rates are somewhat higher among ethnic minorities, with persons of Turkish descent having the highest rate. Figures from show inequality in income distribution: Twenty percent of the lowest-income families accounted for 6 percent of total income, while 20 percent of the highest-income families accounted for 40 percent of the income.
Symbols of Social Stratification. According to a code of morality the "Jante Law" which was formulated by the author Aksel Sandemose in his novel A Refugee Crosses His Tracks, a person should not display superiority materially or otherwise.
Wealth and high social position are downplayed in public in regard to dress, jewelry, and housing. The point is to be discreet about individual distinction and avoid public boasting while allowing one's wealth to be recognized by persons in a similar economic position.
Denmark is a constitutional monarchy in which succession to the throne is hereditary and the ruling monarch must be a member of the national church.
The parliament has members, including two from Greenland and two from the Faroe Islands. Members of parliament are elected for four-year terms, but the state minister has the right to dissolve the parliament and force an election. The voting age has been eighteen since Since , immigrants without Danish nationality have been allowed to vote and be elected in local elections. The minimum percentage of votes required for representation in the parliament is 2 percent.
Leadership and Political Officials. The first political groupings appeared in , shortly before the first constitution was promulgated, and consisted of liberals farmers , the center intellectuals , and the right landowners and higher officials. Party policy is based on political principles and working programs; the former include fundamental political ideas, while the programs are action-oriented.
Currently, ten political parties are represented in the parliament, ranging from socialist to conservative to liberal. Representatives to parliament are elected in local areas and thus represent their home localities as well as a political party.
Liberal parties traditionally strive for individual freedom, including freedom of thought, belief, speech, expression, individual choice, and ownership, and attempt to strengthen the rights of the individual citizen in relation to the state.
Conservatives stress individual freedom, choice, and responsibility and attempt to protect the national culture and tradition. Modern conservatism includes confidence in the individual, an open and critical outlook, tolerance, and a free market economy, combined with a commitment to social security.
Social Democrats favor a welfare society based on freedom, equal opportunity, equality, dignity, solidarity, cultural freedom and diversity, ecology, and democracy. Socialist parties seek a society based on political, social, and cultural diversity; ecological sustainability; social security; equal opportunity; responsibility for the weak; individual freedom; self-realization; active work for peace and disarmament; and a commitment to end global inequality. The Christian People's Party favors a democracy based on Christian ethical values, focused on individual freedom, social responsibility and security, the family, and medical ethics.
For this party, a Christian view of human nature forms the basis for equal human value regardless of race, sex, age, abilities, culture, and religion. Social Problems and Control.
Executive power lies with the monarch, while legislative power is based in the parliament. In executive matters, the monarch exercises authority through government ministers. Judicial power lies with the courts of justice. The most common crimes are offenses against property, offenses against special laws in some municipalities, crimes of violence, and sexual offenses. The police force consists of approximately 10, officers, who work at police stations located in local communities.
Traditionally, Danish police have been known for their easy-going manner and "gentle" approach to difficult situations, relying more on dialogue and communication than on brute force. After years of becoming more centralized and distanced from the Danish people, there is now a trend in policing that involves forming new, smaller police stations in more towns and cities.
In this new environment, officers are moving out of their cars and walking the streets, gaining closer contact with the people. In criminal cases, those over the age of 15 may be punished by the courts. Those between 15 and 18 are held in special youth prisons that provide social training. Those above the age of 18 are imprisoned in one of the country's 14 state prisons. Due to a lack of prison space, convicted criminals sometimes wait for up to two years before they are actually imprisoned.
Denmark also contributes to the United Nations peace forces in the Middle East and other areas. In , the population voted not to join in the development of a common EU military force. The military is staffed through a system of compulsory enrollment.
The term of service, depending on one's duties, ranges from four to twelve months. Full mobilization in the defense forces involves fifty-eight thousand soldiers, while in the absence of war the number is only fifteen thousand. The defense forces include the navy, air force, home guard, and national rescue corps.
The defense budget in was under 2 percent of the gross national product. All residents receive social support when they are unemployed, either through union insurance or locally run programs.
Idled workers receive compensation that is equal to slightly less than the lowest Egeskov Castle is a well-preserved example of Renaissance architecture in Denmark.
After six months of unemployment, an individual meets with an officer from the local unemployment office to formulate a specific strategy for getting a new job. That strategy can include training, further education, or a government job that is supported by the local community in which the person lives.
Public and private programs to aid disabled individuals are found in every major town and city. Food and shelter are always provided, and sometimes disabled persons are placed with a type of foster family. Danes pursue common interests in leisure, sports, and politics. Associations are essentially nongovernmental, originating in the late nineteenth century, when farmers and workers formed interest groups. Today Denmark has one of the highest proportions of association membership in the world.
More than 90 percent of the population belongs to an organization, and more than 73 percent of the people have multiple memberships in more than three hundred thousand organizations. Organizations and associations play three important roles. First, they have been able to develop common interests and identities among different groups of people. Second, practical improvements in the form of production, increases in salary, and membership discounts have been achieved.
Third, organizations participate in the political struggle for the distribution of values and goods in society. Division of Labor by Gender.
Denmark has the highest percentage of women in the labor market in Europe, with close to 80 percent of women being employed. Since the s, the country has had a public policy of equality of men and women in regard to wages and working conditions, yet men are more likely to get top positions and in general earn higher wages than women. Persistent beliefs associate women with the family and men with work.
These practices are enforced by employers who encourage single women and married men to pursue careers. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Since there have been women in the government, and the representation of women in politics has grown significantly. Today nine of twenty ministers are women. However, state ministers have always been men. The Equal Status Council was founded in and closed in , when a new equal status law was issued.
Individuals are free to choose their marriage partners. Many people cohabit at a young age. Polygyny and polyandry are not allowed, and it is forbidden to marry close family and kin members.
Since the late s, homosexuals have had the right to register their partnerships with the local city council. People marry for love, but convenience and economic gains may be equally important. Parents who are not married may wed to give legal security to their children in case of sudden or accidental death. Forty percent of the adult population is married, 45 percent is unmarried, 7 percent is divorced, and 7 percent is widowed. Divorce typically involves separation followed by a legal procedure.
The ideal household unit consists of a married couple and their children who are below age twenty. However, more than 50 percent of households have only one adult single, divorced with children, or widowed.
Extended families living together are rare. Young people usually leave the parental home in their late teens. Previously children stayed in the same town or municipality as their parents, but today families are dispersed across the country. Some people choose to live in shared houses on the basis of similarities in age or ideology or for practical purposes such as ecological farming.
A number of collective forms of housing for the elderly have emerged. For many centuries, men and women have had equal inheritance rights. If one member of a couple dies, the other partner inherits all the possessions of the deceased. If both partners die, their children inherit equal shares of their possessions.
There are also special circumstances such as wills, separate estates, joint property, and divided or undivided possession of an estate. Traditionally, the oldest son inherited the farm or the position as head of the family company after the death of the father. However, the son in this case has to compensate his mother and siblings economically. This tradition extends to the royal family, where the title of king traditionally has been passed from father to oldest son.
Because King Frederik IX had no sons, the constitution was changed in to make it legal for his oldest daughter to inherit the throne. Family relations are traced back equally both matrilineally and patrilineally, and active kin groups often extend to the great-grandparents. Three to six months of maternal leave is a legal right, but the mother may share the last three months of that leave with the father.
Infants generally are breast-fed until the end of the period of maternal leave. Traditionally, the mother was the primary caregiver, but recently the father and other family members have been recognized as equally important in raising infants.
Because Denmark has one of the highest rates of women in the labor market, most infants above six months of age spend the mother's working hours in public nurseries or private child care.
Some Danes, such as these hunters near Alborg, enjoy outdoor leisure activities. Infant care has been much debated, resulting in great variations in regard to ideas about how much an infant should be carried around, whether it should sleep alone or with the parents, whether parents should attend to a baby every time it cries, and how to manage infants who cry during the night.
The overall tendency is that younger parents recognize the individual rights and needs of an infant more than older people do. Child Rearing and Education. Most children enter kindergarten at age three, and many continue school attendance until their early teens.
In , more than 80 percent of three- to six-year-olds attended some kind of day care institution. The pedagogy practiced in nursery schools, kindergartens, and after-school centers is not research-based but is informed by changing ideologies of what children are like and what they need. An ideology of "self-management" is practiced in many institutions, leaving it up to the children to decide what they want to do and how, where, and when to do it. In the ideal family, the mother and father share authority, including their children in decision making.
In pedagogical circles, the term "negotiation-families" is used to illustrate this situation. Most children are materially well taken care of, with nourishing food, regular supplies of new clothes and toys, and a private room in the family house.
Some people argue that working parents compensate for their absence by giving their children toys, videos, and computers. There are five universities: In , , students were enrolled in those institutions: All children in Denmark are obligated to complete nine years of school, either at private or public institutions.
After they have fulfilled that requirement, 50 percent of the students choose a trade by entering vocational training, which includes an apprenticeship and formal schooling. Thirty percent select a one- to three-year college training program, which prepares them for teaching, nursing, or other professional occupations. The remaining 20 percent enter university.
Nearly two-thirds of graduating students apply for university, but the majority are not admitted; those who are turned down either reapply the next year or select one of the vocational or college options.
Admission has become increasingly competitive, based on grade point averages. All higher education is free of charge. Crowds of tourists and Copenhagen residents mingle along the Stroget, a mile-long pedestrian street along the harbor. Privacy is a primary value in Danish etiquette. One is not supposed to invite oneself into another person's house or look into other people's land, property, and salary.
Danes show few emotions publicly, as the open expression of feelings is considered a sign of weakness. Unless provoked, Danes avoid getting into an argument, and they dislike being interrupted during a conversation. Informality is considered a virtue. However, informality in social interaction makes it difficult to enter new social circles.
At dinner parties, meetings, and conferences, there are no formal introductions, leaving it up to people to initiate interaction. Religious freedom is consonant with international standards on the right to freedom of religion.
Eighty-six percent of the population belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, which has for centuries been supported by the state and is considered the national church.
Other world religions represented in the country are Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, the Baha'i faith, and Sikhism. Recently, religious groups celebrating old Viking gods have emerged.
The majority religion is Christianity, and at birth all Danes are considered to belong to the national church, with an obligation to pay church taxes as part of the income tax.
Since the fifteenth century priests have been educated in a university, and ministers in the national church are officials under the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs. The official duties of religious leaders include performing church ceremonies for local members of the national church and keeping a register of births, marriages, and deaths.
Many religious practitioners participate in worldly affairs as social workers or advocate for the underprivileged in public debates. Rituals and Holy Places. Churches are situated within and outside villages, towns, and cities and are surrounded by churchyards with cemeteries. In a Lutheran service, there is a minister, a cantor, a servant, and an organist. Members attend ritual events such as baptisms, confirmations, wedding ceremonies, and funerals and major religious events such as Christmas and Easter.
Only a minority of people attend services regularly, and on weekdays churches are virtually empty. Death and the Afterlife. Danes are not great believers in God; therefore, practices concerning death, the deceased, funerals, and the afterlife are handled in a rational and practical manner. Dead persons are buried in coffins on the grounds of a church or are cremated and have their ashes buried in the graveyard. Graves are decorated with a gravestone with the deceased's name, dates, and greetings and are surrounded by greenery and flowers.
After twenty years the grave is neglected unless family members pay for its care. Generally, religious practitioners are available to support the surviving relatives and talk about life, death, and the afterlife.
Neoreligious communities have emerged in which people are guided to the other side to communicate with deceased family members and kin. As an extraordinary symbolic representation of their marriage, an Ethiopian couple wears a crown along with a robe as a wedding tradition. As a wedding tradition in Denmark, the groom or bride cut off the toe of their sock so that no other women or men will be attracted to them.
Taerye or Great Ritual in a Korean wedding symbolizes the linking of 2 families, instead of the joining of the bride and groom. And the classic Korean costume Hanbok tend to be in a range of colors and various kinds of fabrics. A Moroccan wedding may go on up to a week.
And on the night prior to the wedding, women in the family along with their female cousins set up a Henna or Beberiska Party soon after the traditional purification milk bath of the bride. Grooms are required to do ridiculous movements, resolve riddles, and alot of hilarious things you can imagine. When the groom win over her family and friends, he is then permitted to meet up with his bride-to-be.
As a wedding custom in Mexico, the bride and her family get together for a street wedding procession. In Cuba, pinning money on the bride is a wedding custom wherein the person who ask to dance with bride shall pin money as a gift. Here is a bizarre wedding tradition in Africa wherein as young as 5 years old, girls were sent off to a fat farm where they are forced to eat too much food so that they will be considered attractive to their future mates.
This practice is called Leblouh in which men in some parts of Africa are attracted to fat women. Blackening of the bride and groom is a Scotland wedding tradition wherein the ritual is accomplished to ward off evil spirits. The bride or the groom will end up being covered by such nasty and terrible rotten ingredients.
It is believed that if they can withstand it, they can handle their marriage as well. An ethinic minority in China has a weird wedding tradition wherein they cry during weddings despite of the event being a joyful occasion. Here, the bride will cry close to an hour, just 30 days prior to the marriage ceremony. There traditional ways of life were being increasingly modified by contact with Europeans and their trade, and when, beginning in the latter part of the 18th century, Asante armies began to invade the coastal states, their peoples tended to look for leadership and protection to the European traders in the forts.
But between and the Danes, English, and Dutch had each in turn outlawed their slave trades, and the gold trade was declining. The political uncertainty following the Asante invasions led by Asantehene Osei Bonsu impeded the development of new trades meant to replace the slave trade. In these circumstances the mutually suspicious European interests were reluctant to embark on new political responsibilities.
However, during —44, under the outstanding leadership of George Maclean , the British merchants began to assume an informal protectorate over the Fante states see Fante confederacy , much to the commercial benefit of both parties.
As a result, the British Colonial Office finally agreed to take over the British forts, and in it was able to buy out the Danes. However, trade declined under the new regime, which was averse to assuming formal control over the territory influenced from the forts, and in the s, as a result of this British reticence and of the growth, from the s onward, of Christian missionary education, the Fante states attempted to organize a European-style confederacy independent of British and Asante control.
The Mankesim constitution , written by Fante leaders, was immediately rejected by the British, who, finally prompted to action, now sought more direct control. Further Asante incursions into Fante and the final evacuation of the coast by the Dutch combined to impel a British military expedition into Asante in , though it was unable to carry out a complete conquest and merely sacked the capital, Kumasi. The Gold Coast was declared a British colony in that same year, with the Asante still outside the colonial borders.
French and German activity in adjacent territories and the demand for better protection of British mining and commercial interests led to a further active period of British policy from —, during which Asante was conquered and its northern hinterland formed into a British protectorate.
The 56 years of British rule that followed did not immediately weld into one state the three elements of the territory—the colonies of the Gold Coast and Asante and the protectorate of the Northern Territories—to which after World War I was added a fourth, under mandate from the League of Nations , the western part of former German Togoland see Togoland. But this was hardly the result of deliberate policy.
The ever-increasing assimilation of European ways by the people on the Gold Coast had already made possible there the introduction of such organs of government as a legislative council and a supreme court , but for many years Asante and the Northern Territories remained the sole responsibility of the governor, whose officials were from the s onward encouraged to work with and through the authorities of the indigenous states. Attempts to introduce similar elements of indirect rule in the Gold Coast served mainly to stimulate a nationalist opposition among the educated professional classes, especially in the growing towns, which aimed at converting the legislative council into a fully responsible parliament.
What really brought the country together was the great development of its economy following the rapid expansion of cocoa growing by farmers in the forest. The cacao tree and its seeds—cocoa beans—were introduced in the s. With the wealth created by this great increase of trade, it was possible to provide modern transport facilities—harbours, railways, roads—and social services, especially education to the university level , all of which tended toward the conversion of the traditional social order, of groups bound together by kinship, into one in which individuals were linked principally by economic ties.
In Nigeria, Protestant missions were opened at Badagry, Abeokuta, Lagos, and Bonny from to , and the Roman Catholic missions entered afterward and…. Thus, Ghana , before independence in , had been the British colony of the Gold Coast, in which the British denominations of shilling and penny were traditionally used; special gold was coined to mark the declaration of a republic in Similar developments took place in the….
The local chieftain of each Ashanti tribe had a private workshop for gold jewelry in his small court. In the 18th and 19th centuries the most magnificent court…. For instance, the Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board collects cacao beans in Ghana and licenses trading firms to process the commodity.
Similar marketing processes are used in other West African nations. Because of the vast number of small-scale producers, these agents operate through middlemen who, in turn, enlist sub-buyers…. In Ghana , the first black African country south of the Sahara to achieve independence, the influence of Pres. Kwame Nkrumah —66 led to a great emphasis on the arts and the rise of artists, such as the sculptor Vincent Kofi and the painter Kofi Antubam.
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Daily life and social customs Although the bonds of the extended family are an important factor in the social norms of Ghanaians as a whole, they tend to be much less pronounced among the urban population, where the trend is toward the nuclear family , especially among the professional classes and scattered immigrant groups.
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The terminal degree was for centuries the magistergraden , which was between a master's and a doctoral degree.
En Ekskursion i Skandinavisk Foreningsliv. Before the Vikings, Danes use the flag at festive occasions, including birthdays, weddings, sports events, political meetings, and public holidays.
The economy is therefore heavily dependent on international trade. The defense budget in was under dsnish percent of the gross national product. Home News Sport Business. The danish dating customs force consists of approximately 10, officers, who work at police stations located in local communities. It is also responsible for the maintenance of buildings and relics of historical importance, such as forts and castles, and for the preservation of important art treasures throughout the country.
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