1. Rate of Decay
Outer bone fragments of a femur were tested for C For example, a dinosaur embryo pertaining to the prosauropod Massospondylus was found without teeth, indicating that some parental care was required to feed the young dinosaurs. If God made everything perfect, how could it have all been so changed? Because your computer is running an older version of internet browser, it no longer meets the features of modern websites. It is often cited that mammals out-competed the neornithines for dominance of most terrestrial niches but many of these groups co-existed with rich mammalian faunas for most of the Cenozoic.
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The natural path from simple cosmic molecules to cells, from chemistry to biology, remains undiscovered. Dinosaur organic matter found Imagine the impossibility of a dinosaur bone not turning to stone, not decaying and crumbling to dust and the contents inside the bone surviving. Its remains were discovered in Tanzania between and This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards. Most research conducted since the s , however, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction. Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, early Jurassic, late Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. A lone femur bone was excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 6 18N by 39 22W in Montana by the O.
Kwok called a secret meeting of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab. Armitage had served on the committee for three years, but he was not invited. The committee decided to terminate Armitage. On February 19, , William Krohmer told Armitage that there was a "witch hunt" being mounted against him, and advised him to resign. When he refused to resign, Krohmer told him he would be terminated. Armitage was fired on February 27, He was told that his job had only been a "temporary appointment".
There is a sidenote to this story. Hugh Miller, head of the Paleochronology group, obtained a bone sample from the triceratops horn Mark Armitage discovered. As you can see, the bone was dated by them to 33, years before present. The data for their four dinosaurs is below. A remarkable find was published in the journal Nature in April The "bone bed is characterized by the presence of completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development".
This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteins , within both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces. Our results clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue, which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.
Radiocarbon RC or Carbon C dating of linen, cotton, bones, fossils, wood, sea shells, seeds, coal, diamond anything with carbon is one of the most common and well understood of the various scientific dating methods. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is formed naturally in the atmosphere. All plants and animals have a regular intake of carbon while they are alive. When an animal or plant dies, it no longer takes in carbon of any form. C has a half-life of years. The maximum theoretical detection limit is about , years, but radiocarbon dating is only reliable up to 55, years with the best equipment.
Older dates are considered to be tentative. If, as generally believed, dinosaurs have been extinct for 65 million years, there should not be one atom of Carbon left in their bones. The accuracy of carbon dates depends on whether the ratio of Carbon to Carbon was the same in the past as it is today.
There are two types of C dating technologies. The original one, counting Beta decay particles, is a multistep process and requires sample sizes of several grams. Beta counting is prone to possible errors in each of the many phases. AMS uses a much smaller sample size, and actually counts the Carbon atoms as they are separated from the sample. The equipment accelerates streams of charged atomic particles to high velocities in order to sort and analyze them.
Carbon dating of bone is one of the most difficult tasks in carbon dating, and requires the most care of any carbonaceous material. This is mainly due to the nature of bone, which is a very porous material.
Certain parts of bone look like a sponge under the microscope. Many dinosaur bones are hard as rock because the original material has been replaced with a silicon material such as quartz. These are "mineralized" or "fossilized". We have found un-mineralized dinosaur bones. We then scrape the outer surface off to get rid of surface contamination, and date the inner remaining material. One can date just the purified bioapatite, the total organics, or the collagen, or a combination of these, as we did in several cases.
This is a remarkable find because collagen, being a soft tissue present in most animals, is supposed to decay in a few thousand years. Collagen is the main protein found in connective tissue of animals. It can make up from 1 to 6 percent of muscle mass. Triceratops and Hadrosaur femur bones in excellent condition were discovered in Glendive Montana, and our group received permission to saw them in half and collect samples for Carbon testing.
Both bones were tested by a licensed lab for presence of collagen. Both bones did in fact contain some collagen. The best process Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was used to date them.
Total organic carbon and dinosaur bioapatite was extracted and pretreated to remove potential contaminants, and concordant radiocarbon dates were obtained. They were similar to radiocarbon dates for ice-age megafauna such as Siberian mammoths, saber tooth tigers of the Los Angeles LaBrea Tarpits, sloth dung, and giant bison. We usually prefer AMS dating because of its inherent superior accuracy, but use the conventional method when large samples are available in order to completely rule out contamination.
This is recommended by a carbon-dating laboratory specialist. Robert Bennett, physicist and co-author, agree that "the AOGS-AGU assembly encourages presentation of reliable data even though the topic may be controversial. This is a very wise policy for the advacement of science and the education of people everywhere. Thus, we encourage our colleagues to do their own carbon dating of dinosaur bones from museums and university fossil repositories around the world, as well as testing for C in scrapings from dinosaur bones as they are excavated.
We are anxious to see their results presented, just as we have done. Also, we call on the news media and citizens everywhere to urge paleontologists, curators, university faculty, and government scientific agencies to encourage and support further testing for C content in dinosaur remains.
Scientists need to know the actual chronology of the Earth and the age of the fossils. Download pdf of data and commentary. More censorship by "scientists". Waldemar Julsrud, a German hardware merchant in Acambaro, Mexico, was riding his horse on the lower slope of El Toro Mountain on a sunny morning in July Suddenly he spotted some partially exposed hewn stones and a ceramic object half buried in the dirt. He dismounted and dug out of the ground the hewn stones as well as a few ceramic pieces.
Julsrud, who was archaeologically astute, immediately realized that these ceramic pieces were unlike anything that he had seen. The objects he held in his hand were distinctively different than any other known Indian culture.
When a few ceramic fragments were found there, Julsrud hired diggers to excavate. This discovery brought world wide attention from archaeologists who at first mistakenly defined them as Tarascan, but later they were correctly identified as a whole New Indian culture - the Chupicuaro. Julsrud at age sixty-nine was on the brink of making a discovery that may prove to be the greatest archaeological discovery ever made.
He hired a Mexican farmer, Odilon Tinajero, to dig in the area where the ceramic figurines were found and bring him any other similar objects. Soon Tinajero had a wheelbarrow full of ceramic pottery that had been excavated on El Toro Mountain. Charles Hapgood notes that "Julsrud was a shrewd businessman and he now made a deal with Tinajero that is very important for our story. He told Tinajero that he would pay him one peso worth about 12 cents for each complete piece he brought in.
Among the thousands of artifacts excavated were items that turned Julsrud's mansion into "the museum that scared scientists. The objects were made of clay and stone, varying in size from a few inches long to statues three feet high, and dinosaur objects four to five feet long. In the collection, that now numbered over 20, objects, not one could be found to be a duplicate of another. Each of the clay pieces had been individually made, without molds, skillfully sculptured, and carefully decorated.
Several hundred of the figurines were scientifically identified as representing many species of dinosaurs, including duck billed Trachodon, Gorgosaurus, horned Monoclonius, Ornitholestes, Titanosaurus, Triceratops, Stegosaurus Paleococincus, Diplodocus, Podokosaurus, Struthiomimos, Plesiosaur, Maiasaura, Rhamphorynchus, Iguanodon, Brachiosaurus, Pteranodon, Dimetrodon, Ichtyornis, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Rhynococephalia and other unknown or as yet unidentified dinosaur species.
These remarkable dinosaur figurines threaten orthodox concepts and time scales in many fields of study. Sanderson was amazed in to find that there was an accurate representation of the American dinosaur Brachiosaurus, which was almost totally unknown to the general public at that time.
Sanderson wrote about the figurine in the Julsrud collection. It is about a foot tall. The point is it is an absolutely perfect representation of Brachiosaurus, known only from East Africa and North America. There are a number of outlines of the skeletons in the standard literature but only one fleshed out reconstruction that I have ever seen.
This is exactly like it. Eventually over 33, ceramic figurines were found near El Toro as well as Chivo Mountain on the other side of Acambaro. In , Arthur Young submitted two of the figurines to Dr. The Masca lab had obtained thermoluminescent dates of up to 2, B. In a letter dated September 13, , addressed to Mr. Young, Dr Rainey said: Now after we have had years of experimentation both here and at the lab at Oxford, we have no doubt about the dependability of the thermoluminescent method.
I should also point out, that we were so concerned about the extraordinarily ancient dates of these figures, that Mark Han in our lab made an average of 18 runs on each one of the four samples.
Hence, there is a very substantial bit of research in these particular pieces All in all the lab stands on these dates for the Julsrud material, whatever that means in terms of archeological dating in Mexico, or in terms of 'fakes verse's authentic' pieces. But when the lab at the University of Pennsylvania found out that dinosaurs were part of the collection, they retracted their thermoluminescent dates.
They asserted that the ceramics gave off regenerated light signals and could be no more than 30 years old. A thermoluminescent technician admitted that no other ceramics existed, in his experience, that produced regenerated light signals, and no other thermoluminescent dating of ceramics had ever been done by utilization of a regenerated light signal.
In short, the excuse was a hocus pocus, laboratory trick to avoid the obvious conclusion that dinosaurs and man lived together. John Tierney determined to expose the University of Pennsylvania's shenanigans by testing with standard procedures. Tierney had two fragments of Julsrud-type ceramics excavated at El Toro Mountain in Acambaro, and in , in Julsrud's presence, Tierney submitted these pieces to Dr. Bortulot determined the pieces' upper limit age to be 2, years old, thus, invalidating the Masca report which claimed the objects were made thirty to one hundred years ago.
John Tierney took a half dozen samples of Julsrud ceramics of different clay composition to a team of experts at Ohio State University. They consisted of Dr. In northern Arizona is a large Meteor Crater, the Barringer Crater, Its well preserved shape suggests a very recent origin. During the last years numerous attempts have been made to determine when this event happened. The age of this event has varied from years ago to , years ago. It all depends on what age determination method is used and what assumptions are made using the method.
The Hopi Indians who live in that area have legends about the meteor's impact. Since they would have been living in the area at the time to have observed and passed on a tradition of the event for posterity, that would limit the impact to less than 10, years ago.
It is thought by some to have been the cause of the death of the dinosaurs. Since that is the case if in fact these dinosaurs died as a result of the asteroid hit at Chicxulub then the asteroid hit also only thousands of years ago! Numerous unpetrified dinosuar bones found in Mesozoic strata have been dated and average 31, radio carbon years old. The Mesozoic strata was laid down at the same time as the dinosaur bones and are the same age. This strata contains hundreds of asteroids which have been identified thus far.
Now that we know the strata they struck is tens of thousands of years old and not millions of years old, we can see that asteroids arrive at a rate around times higher than previously projected.
Its arrival was caught on video. The impact was calculated as the equivalent of a blast of , tons of TNT. It shattered windows and damaged over 3, buildings and injured people. It could have been a lot worse of course. It points out the imminent danger of another large meteorite or asteroid from outer space wiping out possibly whole civilizations.
An Asteroid labled tc-4 will supposedly miss the earth by miles on October 12,13 of That is terribly close. If that asteroid hit earth the damage would depend on several factors: Consider an asteroid YU55 which came near the earth in If it had struck in the ocean a sunami 60 feet high might have been generated.
It is estimated that first degree burns from the fireball would have afflicted people within 60 miles. Could these asteroids have caused the earth to crack and continents to move? What caused the continents to separate and created many of the mountain ranges of the world. Slowly drifting continents have been the usual explanation for the past 50 years and is generally referred to as Plate Tectonics Theory.
That idea was proposed in but was not accepted by the scientific community until 50 years later. Now another theory has been proposed to better explain the events. It is called Shock Dynamics and can explain all those events better. It says that an exceptionally large asteroid split the single continent and moved its pieces to where we see them today.
See reference 3 below for a thorough explanation. The few centimeters of motion in the plates measured now is due to a difference in how fast the outer lithosphere rotates versus the inner mantle, a mechanism proposed for Plate Tectonis by mainstream geologists years ago. New information found in Laetoli Tanzania. Like the footprints found in , they are in the same layer of volcanic ash near the surface that would likely have hardened a few hours after it fell.
But the one who made these footprints, labled S-1, was larger than individuals who made the footprints. You can hear that interview with Dr.
He gave the original text available here a grade of A minus. Carbon 14 doesn't lie. Yet 14c is everywhere it shouldn't be. Unless from a secondary source, like contamination or neutron capture described below , anything millions of years old should have NO Carbon A secondary assumption by old-earth scientists proposes that the C in diamonds coal, etc. Theoretical physicist Lawrence Krauss emphasis on the theoretical told RSR that 14c in allegedly million-year-old specimens is an "anomaly. Because modern carbon exists in significant quantities, far above the reliability threshold of the AMS labs doing the tests, these results can no longer be called anomalies!
It is now expected that organic specimens supposedly millions of years old will yield maximum C ages of only thousands of years! Unexpected C14 is found in specimens worldwide, yet 14c production in the ground as compared to in the atmosphere requires a lot of nearby radioactivity to produce appreciable amounts of 14c by neutron capture.
However, terrestrial radioactivity is concentrated, with the vast majority of it occurring in the continental crust. Radioactivity is relatively scarce even in the continental crust, at least as documented by this U. Presented at the AGU Singapore conference, there was less than 20 parts per million of uranium and thorium in the dinosaur bones that contained large quantities of modern carbon, so much that it registered mid-range in the AMS accelerator mass spectrometry capabilities.
In a meeting with RSR, a geologist with a degree from Colorado's School of Mines who has a background in nuclear physics who also spent years bombarding various elements with neutrons to make isotopes for industry told RSR that Carbon does not easily absorb neutrons because it is the heavier elements beginning with Sodium that readily capture neutrons.
Further, while it is relatively unlikely that a Carbon atom will capture a free neutron, industrial processes use Carbon to slow down neutrons, whereas they use heavier elements, typically starting with Silicon, which is almost double the atomic weight of Carbon, for neutron capture.
Creating 14c from Nitrogen, then, has essentially the same problem, because Carbon and Nitrogen are neighbors on the periodic table. Paul Giem writes that, "since nitrogen creates carbon from neutrons , times more easily than does carbon," samples with even tiny amounts of nitrogen would dramatically increase carbon dates, such that, "If neutron capture is a significant source of carbon in a given sample, radiocarbon dates should vary wildly with the nitrogen content of the sample.
Recognizing that crustal radioactivity is generally relatively scare as documented in this U. S report for coal, basalt, shales, granite, fly ash, etc. Jonathan Sarfati builds upon Dr. Giem's research arguing that neutron capture could account for less than one 10,th of the C in diamonds see these peer-reviewed calculations. Therefore, there would have to be thousands of times more uranium, thorium, etc.
Both mathematical analysis of the data, and the nature of some of the specimens, indicate that contamination does not solve the radiocarbon problem for old-earth geologists. While dinosaur bones, coal, and other specimens could easily be contaminated, diamonds, the hardest naturally occurring substance in the world are naturally resistant to contamination.
Thus, when significant quantities of 14c are found, for example, in coal and dinosaur bones, as well as in diamonds, the least contamination-resistant 14c-rich specimens provide a constraint on the likelihood of contamination as a primary source for the modern carbon in other similarly-dated specimens.
Thus the radiocarbon content of diamonds is all the more compelling and important, and especially when the specimens are mined from a quarter-of-a-mile below the surface, insulated from our 14c-bearing atmosphere. Contamination is not only far more unlikely within deep-mined and unbroken diamonds, but because of the unique physical composition of diamonds, various kinds of contamination could be more readily detectable. Just as forensic accountants can often determine when a criminal business has cooked its books merely by doing a Benford statistical analysis of the numbers, so too mathematicians have demonstrated that statistical analysis can indicate whether scientific data is likely a result of measurement errors.
So evolutionists typically claim that all this 14c results from contamination, but statistical analysis indicates that when plotting erroneous dates as from contamination , the data should fit a normal curve. However, it does not. Regarding the results from the ten dinosaurs dated as above , of course, bacteria do not make collagen.
And if the 14c came from contamination, for example, one would not expect the contamination to so equally affect the bioapatite and the collagen.
The above paper indicates that where sampled, the ground area has decreasing 14c with distance from the dinosaur bone, indicating that modern carbon is leaching out of the bone which is not problematic , but, most significantly, not seeping into the bone.
Images: dinosaurs carbon dating
Retrieved June 22, Somewhere in the Indian ocean is thought to be where the giant asteroid struck that produced this giant wave.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles [note 1] of the clade Dinosauria. Jonathan Sarfati builds upon Dr. He found the brow-horn of a triceratops; it was not petrified.
In the case of dinosaur fossils, Hugh Miller and his group of creationists claim to have obtained radiocarbon dates on endogenous sources of carbon Enter into the lives of these ordinary people with extraordinary stories. These include an elongated scapulaor shoulder blade; a sacrum composed of three or more fused vertebrae three are dinosaurs carbon dating in some other archosaurs, but only two are found in Herrerasaurus ;  and a perforate acetabulumor hip socket, with a hole at the center of its inside surface closed in Dinosaurs carbon datingfor example. It could have been a lot worse of course. Carbondated good married dating sites bones are less than 40, years old carbon dating dinosaur bones carbon dated dinosaur fossils date c dinosaur fossil bones by c14 dinosaur bones fossils Researchers have found a reason for the puzzling dinosaurs carbon dating of soft tissue and collagen in dinosaur bones - the bones are younger than anyone ever guessed. Dinosaurs carbon datingit was reported that a dinosaur tail with feathers had been found enclosed in amber.
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